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Trans-α-xylosidase and trans-β-galactosidase activities, widespread in plants, modify and stabilize xyloglucan structures.

Authors
  • Franková, Lenka1
  • Fry, Stephen C
  • 1 Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, The King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JH, UK.
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Plant Journal
Publisher
Wiley (Blackwell Publishing)
Publication Date
Jul 01, 2012
Volume
71
Issue
1
Pages
45–60
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2012.04966.x
PMID: 22360414
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Cell-wall components are hydrolysed by numerous plant glycosidase and glycanase activities. We investigated whether plant enzymes also modify xyloglucan structures by transglycosidase activities. Diverse angiosperm extracts exhibited transglycosidase activities that progressively transferred single sugar residues between xyloglucan heptasaccharide (XXXG or its reduced form, XXXGol) molecules, at 16 μM and above, creating octa- to decasaccharides plus smaller products. We measured remarkably high transglycosylation:hydrolysis ratios under optimized conditions. To identify the transferred monosaccharide(s), we devised a dual-labelling strategy in which a neutral radiolabelled oligosaccharide (donor substrate) reacted with an amino-labelled non-radioactive oligosaccharide (acceptor substrate), generating radioactive cationic products. For example, 37 μM [Xyl-³H]XXXG plus 1 mM XXLG-NH₂ generated ³H-labelled cations, demonstrating xylosyl transfer, which exceeded xylosyl hydrolysis 1.6- to 7.3-fold, implying the presence of enzymes that favour transglycosylation. The transferred xylose residues remained α-linked but were relatively resistant to hydrolysis by plant enzymes. Driselase digestion of the products released a trisaccharide (α-[³H]xylosyl-isoprimeverose), indicating that a new xyloglucan repeat unit had been formed. In similar assays, [Gal-³H]XXLG and [Gal-³H]XLLG (but not [Fuc-³H]XXFG) yielded radioactive cations. Thus plants exhibit trans-α-xylosidase and trans-β-galactosidase (but not trans-α-fucosidase) activities that graft sugar residues from one xyloglucan oligosaccharide to another. Reconstructing xyloglucan oligosaccharides in this way may alter oligosaccharin activities or increase their longevity in vivo. Trans-α-xylosidase activity also transferred xylose residues from xyloglucan oligosaccharides to long-chain hemicelluloses (xyloglucan, water-soluble cellulose acetate, mixed-linkage β-glucan, glucomannan and arabinoxylan). With xyloglucan as acceptor substrate, such an activity potentially affects the polysaccharide's suitability as a substrate for xyloglucan endotransglucosylase action and thereby modulates cell expansion. We conclude that certain proteins annotated as glycosidases can function as transglycosidases.

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