This paper presents the new international TPOS2020 project: why it has been established, what are its scientific objectives, its proposed organization, governance, and what the expected outcomes are. It is aiming at informing Coriolis, Mercator Océan, and the operational oceanography communities, all concerned, and involved in generating interest and contributions to the project. Building upon its scientific activities in the Pacific and the surrounding countries, the French community is willing to take an active role in this international project. The TPOS 2020 Project is a focused, finite term project, which began in 2014 and will be completed in 2020. It will evaluate, and where necessary provide guidance, to change all elements that contribute to the Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS) based on a modern understanding of tropical Pacific science. Learning lessons from the great success-and finally partial collapse- of the TAO/TRITON array, the project objective is to build a renewed, integrated, internationally-coordinated and sustainable observing system in the Tropical Pacific, meeting both the needs of climate research and operational forecasting systems. The scientific objectives are: - To redesign and refine the TPOS to observe El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and advance scientific understanding of its causes, - To determine the most efficient and effective observational solutions to support prediction systems for ocean, weather and climate services, - To advance understanding of tropical Pacific physical and biogeochemical variability and predictability. TPOS2020 is coordinated by a steering committee with task teams and working groups working on specific aspects of the observing system. Since much of the use and benefit of TPOS data will be achieved through model assimilation and syntheses, the operational modeling centers are considered key partners. The TPOS2020 project also opens partnerships with other global ocean observing communities: the meteorological community, and the coastal and regional ocean communities. TPOS 2020 embraces the integration of complementary sampling technologies; it will consider the different observing system components as an integrated whole, targeting robustness and sustainability, along with a developed governance and coordination.