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TPL-2 kinase induces phagosome acidification to promote macrophage killing of bacteria

  • Breyer, F
  • Hartlova, A
  • Thurston, T
  • Flynn, HR
  • Chakravarty, P
  • Janzen, J
  • Peltier, J
  • Heunis, T
  • Snijders, AP
  • Trost, M
  • Ley, SC
Publication Date
Mar 15, 2021
Spiral - Imperial College Digital Repository
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Tumour progression locus 2 (TPL-2) kinase mediates Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation of ERK1/2 and p38α MAP kinases in myeloid cells to modulate expression of key cytokines in innate immunity. This study identified a novel MAP kinase-independent regulatory function for TPL-2 in phagosome maturation, an essential process for killing of phagocytosed microbes. TPL-2 catalytic activity was demonstrated to induce phagosome acidification and proteolysis in primary mouse and human macrophages following uptake of latex beads. Quantitative proteomics revealed that blocking TPL-2 catalytic activity significantly altered the protein composition of phagosomes, particularly reducing the abundance of V-ATPase proton pump subunits. Furthermore, TPL-2 stimulated the phosphorylation of DMXL1, a regulator of V-ATPases, to induce V-ATPase assembly and phagosome acidification. Consistent with these results, TPL-2 catalytic activity was required for phagosome acidification and the efficient killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Citrobacter rodentium following phagocytic uptake by macrophages. TPL-2 therefore controls innate immune responses of macrophages to bacteria via V-ATPase induction of phagosome maturation.

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