How cellular factors regulate gammaherpesvirus lytic replication is not well understood. Here, through functional screening of a cellular kinase expression library, we identified mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (MAP3K8/Tpl2) as a positive regulator of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 or gammaHV-68) lytic gene expression and replication. Tpl2 enhances MHV-68 lytic replication by upregulating lytic gene expression and promoter activities of viral lytic genes, including RTA and open reading frame 57 (ORF57). By screening a cellular transcription factor library, we identified the Fos AP-1 transcription factor as a downstream factor that is both necessary and sufficient for mediating the enhancement of MHV-68 lytic replication by Tpl2. In addition, Tpl2 stimulates the promoter activities of key viral lytic genes, including RTA and ORF57, in an AP-1-dependent manner. We identified an AP-1-responsive element on the MHV-68 RTA promoter as the cis element mediating the upregulation of RTA promoter activity by Tpl2. MHV-68 lytic infection upregulates Fos expression, AP-1 activity, and RTA promoter activity in a Tpl2-dependent manner. We constructed a mutant MHV-68 virus that abolished this AP-1-responsive element. This mutant virus exhibited attenuated lytic replication kinetics, indicative of a critical role of this AP-1-responsive element during lytic replication. Moreover, Tpl2 knockdown inhibited the lytic replication of wild-type MHV-68 (MHV-68-WT) but not that of the MHV-68 mutant virus, indicating that endogenous Tpl2 promotes efficient virus lytic replication through AP-1-dependent upregulation of RTA expression. In summary, through tandem functional screens, we identified the Tpl2/AP-1 signaling transduction pathway as a positive regulator of MHV-68 lytic replication.