Affordable Access

The toxicity redox mechanisms of cadmium alone or together with copper and zinc homeostasis alteration: its redox biomarkers.

  • Nzengue, Yves
  • Candéias, Serge
  • Sauvaigo, Sylvie
  • Douki, Thierry
  • Favier, Alain
  • Rachidi, Walid
  • Guiraud, Pascale
Publication Date
Jul 01, 2011
External links


Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal and can induce and/or promote diseases in humans (cancer, aging diseases, kidney and bone diseases, etc.). Its toxicity involves many mechanisms including the alteration of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) homeostasis leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, either directly or through the inhibition of antioxidant activities. Importantly, ROS can induce oxidative damages in cells. Cadmium, Cu and Zn are also able to induce glutathione (GSH) and metallothioneins (MT) synthesis in a cell-type-dependent manner. As a consequence, the effects induced by these three metals result simultaneously from the inhibition of antioxidant activities and the induction of other factors such as GSH and MT synthesis. MT levels are regulated not only by the p53 protein in a cell-type-dependent manner, or by transcription factors such as metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and cellular Zn levels but also by cellular GSH level. As described in the literature, DNA damage, GSH and MT levels are sensitive biomarkers used to identify Cd-induced toxicity alone or together with Cu and Zn homeostasis alteration.

Report this publication


Seen <100 times