Toxicity tests were performed with seven fluoroquinolone antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, clinafloxacin, enrofloxacin, and flumequine, on five aquatic organisms. Overall toxicity values ranged from 7.9 to 23,000 microg/L. The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was the most sensitive organism (5-d growth and reproduction, effective concentrations [EC50s] ranging from 7.9 to 1,960 microg/L and a median of 49 microg/L), followed by duckweed (Lemna minor, 7-d reproduction, EC50 values ranged from 53 to 2,470 microg/L with a median of 106 microg/L) and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (3-d growth and reproduction, EC50 values ranged from 1,100 to 22,700 microg/L with a median 7,400 microg/L). Results from tests with the crustacean Daphnia magna (48-h survival) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, 7-d early life stage survival and growth) showed limited toxicity with no-observed-effect concentrations at or near 10 mg/L. Fish dry weights obtained in the ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin treatments (10 mg/L) were significantly higher than in control fish. The hazard of adverse effects occurring to the tested organisms in the environment was quantified by using hazard quotients. An estimated environmental concentration of 1 microg/L was chosen based on measured environmental concentrations previously reported in surface water; at this level, only M. aeruginosa may be at risk in surface water. However, the selective toxicity of these compounds may have implications for aquatic community structure.