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Toxicity Assessment of 4 Azo Dyes in Zebrafish Embryos.

Authors
  • Jiang, Ling-Ling1, 2
  • Li, Kang1, 2
  • Yan, Dong-Lin1, 2
  • Yang, Mi-Fang1, 2
  • Ma, Lan3, 4
  • Xie, Li-Zhe1, 2
  • 1 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. , (China)
  • 2 Institute of Stomatology, Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. , (China)
  • 3 Department of Environmental Genomics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Cancer Biomarkers, Prevention and Treatment, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Personalized Medicine, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. , (China)
  • 4 Department of Genetic Toxicology, The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. , (China)
Type
Published Article
Journal
International journal of toxicology
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2020
Volume
39
Issue
2
Pages
115–123
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1177/1091581819898396
PMID: 31933405
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Azo dyes are used widely as color additives in food, drugs, and cosmetics; hence, there is an increasing concern about their safety and possible health hazards. In the present study, we chose 4 azo dyes tartrazine, Sunset Yellow, amaranth, and Allura red and evaluated their developmental toxicity on zebrafish embryos. At concentration levels of 5 to 50 mM, we found that azo dyes can induce hatching difficulty and developmental abnormalities such as cardiac edema, decreased heart rate, yolk sac edema, and spinal defects including spinal curvature and tail distortion. Exposure to 100 mM of each azo dye was completely embryolethal. The median lethal concentration (LC50), median effective concentration (EC50), and teratogenic index (TI) were calculated for each azo dye at 72 hours postfertilization. For tartrazine, the LC50 was 47.10 mM and EC50 value was at 42.66 mM with TI ratio of 1.10. For Sunset Yellow, the LC50 was 38.93 mM and EC50 value was at 29.81 mM with TI ratio of 1.31. For amaranth, the LC50 was 39.86 mM and EC50 value was at 31.94 mM with TI ratio of 1.25. For Allura red, the LC50 was 47.42 mM and EC50 value was 40.05 mM with TI ratio of 1.18. This study reports the developmental toxicity of azo dyes in zebrafish embryos at concentrations higher than the expected human exposures from consuming food and drugs containing azo dyes.

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