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Towards triple vasopeptidase inhibitors for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Authors
  • Daull, Philippe
  • Jeng, Arco Y
  • Battistini, Bruno
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Publisher
Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer) - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2007
Volume
50
Issue
3
Pages
247–256
Identifiers
PMID: 17878751
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CDs) are among the most encountered pathologies in western countries; with obesity reaching pandemic proportions, they are soon to become a worldwide problem. High blood pressure is the main risk factor for CDs, and its tight control is an imperative for the treatment of complications such as renal diseases, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Blood homeostasis and vascular tone are regulated through at least 3 major closely interrelated pathways in which zinc metallopeptidases modulate the concentration of vasoactive mediators. Those extensively studied vasopeptidases were therefore rapidly targeted with specific inhibitors in order to control the levels of vasoconstrictors [angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1)] and vasodilators [bradykinin (BK) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)], thereby controlling blood pressure. The first class of inhibitors to be developed were against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), recently followed by dual inhibitors of ACE/neprylisin (NEP), NEP/endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), and finally triple ACE/NEP/ECE inhibitors. The dual and triple inhibitors are defined as vasopeptidase inhibitors (VPI). In addition to their ability to effectively lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients, drugs targeting these enzymes also displayed antiinflammatory and antifibrotic activities. The major point emerging from recent studies undertaken to improve the management of CDs is that the combined action of different therapeutic strategies (ie, simultaneous modulation of several neurohumoral mediators) shows better results than conservative therapeutic approaches. In this review, we historically present the advances made in the comprehension of the different mechanisms of blood pressure regulation and some of the drugs that arose from this understanding.

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