Municipal SolidWaste (MSW) management in China has been transitioning from a mixed collection and treatment system to a separated collection and treatment system. The continuous rise of MSW treatment capacity and the optimization of technology structure provided basic facility support for China to promote MSW separation at source. China preferred a four-type separation system. Regulated recycling should be enhanced to improve the efficiency and sustainability of recycling industry. As food waste is the main composition of MSW in China, 20%–30% of the food waste diversion and land application could maximize the comprehensive environmental performance. Incineration is to be the pillar technology in MSW separated treatment system in China.