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Tools and Techniques for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/COVID-19 Detection.

Authors
  • Safiabadi Tali, Seyed Hamid1, 2
  • LeBlanc, Jason J3, 4, 5, 6
  • Sadiq, Zubi1
  • Oyewunmi, Oyejide Damilola1
  • Camargo, Carolina7
  • Nikpour, Bahareh8
  • Armanfard, Narges8, 9
  • Sagan, Selena M7, 10
  • Jahanshahi-Anbuhi, Sana11
  • 1 Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Gina Cody School of Engineering, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 2 Department of Mechanical, Industrial, and Aerospace Engineering, Gina Cody School of Engineering, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 3 Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada [email protected] [email protected] , (Canada)
  • 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 5 Department of Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 6 Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Nova Scotia Health, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 7 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 8 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 9 Mila-Quebec AI Institute, Montréal, Québec, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 10 Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 11 Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Gina Cody School of Engineering, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada [email protected] [email protected] , (Canada)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Publisher
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Jun 16, 2021
Volume
34
Issue
3
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00228-20
PMID: 33980687
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to millions of confirmed cases and deaths worldwide. Efficient diagnostic tools are in high demand, as rapid and large-scale testing plays a pivotal role in patient management and decelerating disease spread. This paper reviews current technologies used to detect SARS-CoV-2 in clinical laboratories as well as advances made for molecular, antigen-based, and immunological point-of-care testing, including recent developments in sensor and biosensor devices. The importance of the timing and type of specimen collection is discussed, along with factors such as disease prevalence, setting, and methods. Details of the mechanisms of action of the various methodologies are presented, along with their application span and known performance characteristics. Diagnostic imaging techniques and biomarkers are also covered, with an emphasis on their use for assessing COVID-19 or monitoring disease severity or complications. While the SARS-CoV-2 literature is rapidly evolving, this review highlights topics of interest that have occurred during the pandemic and the lessons learned throughout. Exploring a broad armamentarium of techniques for detecting SARS-CoV-2 will ensure continued diagnostic support for clinicians, public health, and infection prevention and control for this pandemic and provide advice for future pandemic preparedness. Copyright © 2021 American Society for Microbiology.

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