monocytes in comparison to placebo, while circulating CD14dimCD16+ monocytes significantly increased. The TNFi-induced monocyte subset shifts were similar in RA and AS patients. While the percentage of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes increased, expression of CD11b and CD11c integrins on their surface was significantly reduced by TNFi. Additionally, CD45RA+ cells were more frequent. The shift towards nonclassical CD14dimCD16+ monocytes in peripheral blood due to TNFi treatment was seen in both AS and RA. This may reflect reduced recruitment of these cells to sites of inflammation due to lower inflammatory burden, which is associated with decreased disease activity.