Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as the major primary liver cancer, is one of the most prevalent malignant diseases with a high mortality rate worldwide. Prior studies have demonstrated that dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin, possesses anti-HCC activity. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib has been approved for the treatment of HCC. However, the anti-HCC efficacy of DHA combined with sorafenib has not been reported. In this study, we confirmed the significantly enhanced anti-HCC efficacy of DHA in combination with sorafenib compared with that of each agent alone. Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) peptide labeling coupled with LC-MS/MS was used to quantify the proteins from the control, DHA, sorafenib, and DHA + sorafenib groups. In total, 532, 426, 628 differentially expressed proteins (fold change >1.20 or <0.83 and P-value <0.05) were determined by comparing DHA versus control, sorafenib versus control and DHA + sorafenib versus control groups, respectively. Moreover, optimized screening was performed, and 101 optimized differentially expressed proteins were identified. The results of functional analysis of the optimized differentially expressed proteins suggested that they were enriched in cell components such as membrane-bound vesicles, extracellular vesicles, and organelle lumens, and they were mainly involved in biological processes such as cellular component organization, response to stress, and response to chemicals; in addition, they were related to various molecular functions such as protein binding, chromatin binding and enzyme binding. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the optimized differentially expressed proteins were enriched in pyrimidine metabolism, RNA polymerase, base excision repair, and osteoclast differentiation. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of some of the optimized upregulated proteins suggested that they might not only affect vitamin and fat digestion and absorption but may also be involved in tight junctions. In the PPI network, some of the optimized downregulated proteins were enriched in base excision repair, RNA polymerase, purine metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism and mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis. Overall, this research explored the anti-HCC efficacy of DHA combined with sorafenib by using the TMT-based quantitative proteomics technique and might facilitate the understanding of the related anti-HCC molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.