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Titanium-porcelain system. Part I: Oxidation kinetics of nitrided pure titanium, simulated to porcelain firing process.

  • Oshida, Y
  • Hashem, A
Published Article
Bio-medical materials and engineering
Publication Date
Jan 01, 1993
PMID: 8205060


The bonding strength of porcelains to metals depends on the oxide layer between the porcelain and the metal. Oxidation of a metal surface increases the bonding strength, whereas excessive oxidation decreases it. Titanium and its alloys are gaining acceptance for dental use since they exhibit excellent biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, low specific gravity, good mechanical properties, and low cost. However, titanium suffers from its violent reactivity with oxygen at high temperatures that yields an excessive thick layer of TiO2, and this presents difficulties with porcelain bonding. The present study deals with the oxidation kinetics of titanium simulated to porcelain firing and evaluating surface nitridation of titanium as a process of controlling the oxidation behavior of titanium. Nitrided samples with the Arc Ion Plating PVD process and un-nitrided control commercially pure titanium (CPT, Grade 1) were subjected to oxidation simulating firing of Procera porcelain with 550 degrees, 700 degrees, and 800 degrees C firing temperatures for 10 min in both 1 and 0.1 atmospheric air. Weight difference before and after oxidation was calculated and the parabolic rate constant, Kp (mg2/cm4/s), was plotted against inverse absolute temperature. Surface layers of the samples were subjected to x-ray and electron diffraction techniques for phase identifications. Results revealed that both nitrided and un-nitrided samples obey a parabolic rate law with activation energy of 50 kcal/mol. In addition this study shows that nitrided CPT had a Kp about 5 times lower than the un-nitrided CPT and hence the former needs about 2.24 times longer oxidation time to show the same degree of oxidation. Phase identification resulted in confirming the presence of TiO2 as the oxide film in both groups but with 1-2 microns thickness for the un-nitrided CPT and 0.3-0.5 micron thickness for the nitrided samples. Therefore it can be concluded that nitridation of titanium surface can be effective in controlling the surface oxide thickness that might ensure satisfactory bonding with porcelain.

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