The number of days until pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) results become negative after treatment remains unknown. Between March 2019 and April 2021, we enrolled men who have sex with men (MSM) who had a clinical positive pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae Aptima Combo 2 test result but had not yet been treated in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. MSM were enrolled on their day of treatment and self-collected daily pharyngeal specimens for 21 days at home. We used Kaplan-Meier estimates to determine the median time to clearance and the >95% time to clearance and the log rank test for equality to evaluate factors associated with time to clearance. Sixty-four men were enrolled in the study. Analyses excluded 8 men (12.5%) who were N. gonorrhoeae negative by NAAT at enrollment and 11 (17%) who failed to return any home-collected specimens. Among the 45 men included in the analysis, the median time to N. gonorrhoeae NAAT clearance was 3 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 2 to 5 days). Time to clearance for >95% of the cohort was 12 days (95% CI, 10 days to an undefined time). Men with a history of N. gonorrhoeae infection cleared faster than men without such history (8 days versus 17 days for >95% time to clearance; P = 0.03). In the absence of reexposure, positive N. gonorrhoeae Aptima Combo 2 assay results obtained prior to 12 days after treatment are likely false-positive results.