Timber grading is an essential step into the value process to determine wood usability for structural uses. It requires well-described characteristics obtained easily by taking non-destructive measurements to quantify reliable indicators of mechanical properties. In this paper we present an approach based on both timber scale and clear-wood scale measurements using the case of Mountain pine (Pinus uncinata). An important experimental plan have been performed from collected trees of French and Spain Pyrenean regions allowing significantly the use of inter-correlations between measurements. The physical properties of clear wood present an important adaptation of tree growth condition with a lower modulus of elasticity as a consequence of microstructure at cell-wall level but a conventional modulus or rupture in bending for pines. However, the results on timber presents an important the difference between visual and machine grading for this species in view of mechanical properties considered. The results obtained also show possible improvement and limitations of current regulation in the grading mountain pine timber for structural use.