Nine children, aged 5 to 11 years, with subacute or chronic meningitis were studied. Symptoms started during the summer season in all patients and in eight of the patients the disease began with a localized erythematous lesion (ECM), mostly in the face. In one patient only there was a history of an insect bite at the site of the erythema. The neurological abnormalities included aseptic meningitis, peripheral facial nerve palsy (5/9) and oculomotor nerve palsy (1/9). Most children complained of headache, fatigue, loss of appetite and had a low grade fever. High antibody titers to Borrelia spirochetes in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were demonstrated by ELISA in eight of the nine patients and by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in three patients. All patients had a dramatic improvement in their general condition and became afebrile within three days of institution of i.v. penicillin G treatment (i.v. cefuroxime in one patient).