Authors present 114 children and adolescents of the total 3865 patients that underwent surgery on the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Department of Otorhinolaryngology of IPVZ, Prague because of a thyroid disease in years 1991-2000. The male/female ratio in the group was 1:6.5, 16 (13.9%) males and 99 (86.1%) females. For non-malignant disease, the male/female ratio was 1:6.5 and for malignant disease, it was 1:5.4. Thyroid surgery was indicated for non-malignant disease in 82 (71.9%) cases--11 males and 71 females. Most frequently it was indicated because of Graves-Basedow and Hashimoto toxicosis--in 39 children (34.2%), in 5 children (4.4%) for toxic adenoma. Because of the polynodular goiter surgery was indicated in 13 cases (11.4%), in 22 cases (19.3%) for mononodular goiter. Three girls (2.6%) were recommended for surgery because of Hashimoto thyreoiditis and for mechanic syndrome in diffuse goiter one girl (0.9%). Malignant tumor was found in 32 children (28.1%)--5 males and 27 females. Most frequent histological type was papillary cancer--in 25 cases (21.9%). Follicular cancer was diagnosed in four cases (3.5%) and medullar cancer in three cases (2.6%). TNM classification in children and adults is summarized in Table 1. Surgery was carried out in two children with distant metastases (lung localization). In both children the pre-disease stage lasted more than 12 months. The first manifestation of the disease was a finding of enlarged and palpable nodes on the neck. The authors summarize indications for surgery of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents. A treatment of the thyroid gland is a teamwork. Indication for surgery is carried out by a pediatric endocrinologist in cooperation with a surgeon specialized in thyroid surgery. The possible identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve by a surgery microscope is an unquestionable advance. Children and adults should be centralized into health-care centers capable not only of surgery, but also of endocrinology care. In children with a malignant disease there is a need for cooperation with a pediatric oncologist and a following oncological treatment on a nuclear medicine department. The authors summarize the information about today's thyroid surgery care possibilities for children and adolescents. They point out the differences in indications and the decision about extent of surgery in children and adolescents.