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Thyroid hormone action during GABAergic neuron maturation: The quest for mechanisms

Authors
  • Richard, Sabine
  • Ren, Juan
  • Flamant, Frédéric
Type
Published Article
Journal
Frontiers in Endocrinology
Publisher
Frontiers Media SA
Publication Date
Oct 03, 2023
Volume
14
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1256877
Source
Frontiers
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Endocrinology
  • Review
License
Green

Abstract

Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling plays a major role in mammalian brain development. Data obtained in the past years in animal models have pinpointed GABAergic neurons as a major target of TH signaling during development, which opens up new perspectives to further investigate the mechanisms by which TH affects brain development. The aim of the present review is to gather the available information about the involvement of TH in the maturation of GABAergic neurons. After giving an overview of the kinds of neurological disorders that may arise from disruption of TH signaling during brain development in humans, we will take a historical perspective to show how rodent models of hypothyroidism have gradually pointed to GABAergic neurons as a main target of TH signaling during brain development. The third part of this review underscores the challenges that are encountered when conducting gene expression studies to investigate the molecular mechanisms that are at play downstream of TH receptors during brain development. Unravelling the mechanisms of action of TH in the developing brain should help make progress in the prevention and treatment of several neurological disorders, including autism and epilepsy.

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