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Three-dimensional facial hard tissue symmetry in a healthy Caucasian population group: a systematic review

  • Morgan, Nermin; 129946;
  • Suryani, Isti;
  • Shujaat, Sohaib; 117714;
  • Jacobs, Reinhilde; 14109;
Publication Date
Aug 13, 2021
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OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the symmetry of the facial hard tissue structures using three-dimensional radiographic imaging modalities in a normal Caucasian population group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic literature search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to February 2021. The studies assessing symmetry of facial bones using computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT were included. RESULTS: The initial search revealed 8811 studies. Full-text analysis was performed on 33 studies. Only 10 studies were found eligible based on the inclusion criteria. The qualitative analysis revealed that a significant variability existed in relation to the methodologies applied for symmetry quantification. CONCLUSION: The current review suggested that the overall relative symmetry of the normal Caucasian population group varied depending on the skeletal structure being assessed; however, majority of the observations showed a symmetry within the range of 1 mm without any significant difference between left and right sides. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The quantification of facial hard tissue structure symmetry is vital for the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthodontic and/or maxillofacial surgical procedures. Prospero registration number CRD42020169908. / status: published

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