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Three-dimensional bio-printing and bone tissue engineering: technical innovations and potential applications in maxillofacial reconstructive surgery

Authors
  • Salah, Muhja1
  • Tayebi, Lobat2
  • Moharamzadeh, Keyvan3
  • Naini, Farhad B.4
  • 1 St George’s Hospital, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 2 Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USA , Milwaukee (United States)
  • 3 University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK , Sheffield (United Kingdom)
  • 4 Kingston and St George’s Hospitals and St George’s Medical School, London, SW17 0QT, UK , London (United Kingdom)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Jun 03, 2020
Volume
42
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s40902-020-00263-6
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundBone grafting has been considered the gold standard for hard tissue reconstructive surgery and is widely used for large mandibular defect reconstruction. However, the midface encompasses delicate structures that are surrounded by a complex bone architecture, which makes bone grafting using traditional methods very challenging. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a developing technology that is derived from the evolution of additive manufacturing. It enables precise development of a scaffold from different available biomaterials that mimic the shape, size, and dimension of a defect without relying only on the surgeon’s skills and capabilities, and subsequently, may enhance surgical outcomes and, in turn, patient satisfaction and quality of life.ReviewThis review summarizes different biomaterial classes that can be used in 3D bioprinters as bioinks to fabricate bone scaffolds, including polymers, bioceramics, and composites. It also describes the advantages and limitations of the three currently used 3D bioprinting technologies: inkjet bioprinting, micro-extrusion, and laser-assisted bioprinting.ConclusionsAlthough 3D bioprinting technology is still in its infancy and requires further development and optimization both in biomaterials and techniques, it offers great promise and potential for facial reconstruction with improved outcome.

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