The present review summarizes the outer and inner surface features of mossy fiber glomeruli in vertebrate cerebellar granular layer as seen by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM freeze-fracture method. The intracortical trajectory of mossy fibers and their synaptic contacts with granule cell dendrites were traced by the slicing and freeze-fracture techniques revealing the radial distribution of granule cell dendrites around the central mossy rosette. The "en passant" nature of mossy fiber synaptic contacts and the participation of Golgi cell axonal ramifications were demonstrated. The results obtained were compared with available light and transmission electron microscopy data. The freeze-etching technique disclosed the true extension of glomerular neuroglial investment. The proteoglycan content of mossy fiber rosette has been also studied by Alcian Blue staining, enzymatic digestion with testicular hyaluronidase and neuraminidase and Os-DMEDA staining method resulting in the presence of an electron dense material at the mossy fiber axoplasmic matrix and some synaptic vesicles, pre-and postsynaptic densities and cleft substance. The axoplasmic material appears to be constituted by proteoglycans with hyaluronic acid or chondroitin sulphate in their composition. The possible role of proteoglycans in synaptic functions is also discussed. Scanning electron microscopy is a promising methodology for analysis of short intracortical circuits and for the study of complex multisynaptic arrangements.