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Thirty-day mortality of patients with hip fracture during COVID-19 pandemic and pre-pandemic periods: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors
  • Tripathy, Sujit Kumar
  • Varghese, Paulson
  • Panigrahi, Sibasish
  • Panda, Bijnya Birajita
  • Velagada, Sandeep
  • Sahoo, Samrat Smrutiranjan
  • Naik, Monappa A
  • Rao, Sharath K
Type
Published Article
Journal
World Journal of Orthopedics
Publisher
Baishideng Publishing Group Co (World Journal of Orthopedics)
Publication Date
Jan 18, 2021
Volume
12
Issue
1
Pages
35–50
Identifiers
DOI: 10.5312/wjo.v12.i1.35
PMID: 33520680
PMCID: PMC7814308
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Meta-Analysis
License
Green

Abstract

BACKGROUND Timely intervention in hip fracture is essential to decrease the risks of perioperative morbidity and mortality. However, limitations of the resources, risk of disease transmission and redirection of medical attention to a more severe infective health problem during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic period have affected the quality of care even in a surgical emergency. AIM To compare the 30-d mortality rate and complications of hip fracture patients treated during COVID-19 pandemic and pre-pandemic times. METHODS The search of electronic databases on 1st August 2020 revealed 45 studies related to mortality of hip fracture during the COVID-19 pandemic and pre-pandemic times. After careful screening, eight studies were eligible for quantitative and qualitative analysis of data. RESULTS The pooled data of eight studies ( n = 1586) revealed no significant difference in 30-d mortality rate between the hip fracture patients treated during the pandemic and pre-pandemic periods [9.63% vs 6.33%; odds ratio (OR), 0.62; 95%CI, 0.33, 1.17; P = 0.14]. Even the 30-d mortality rate was not different between COVID-19 non-infected patients who were treated during the pandemic time, and all hip fracture patients treated during the pre-pandemic period (OR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.61, 1.75; P = 0.91). A significant difference in mortality rate was observed between COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative patients (OR, 6.99; 95%CI, 3.45, 14.16; P < 0.00001). There was no difference in the duration of hospital stay (OR, -1.52, 95%CI, -3.85, 0.81; P = 0.20), overall complications (OR, 1.62; P = 0.15) and incidence of pulmonary complications (OR, 1.46; P = 0.38) in these two-time frames. Nevertheless, the preoperative morbidity was more severe, and there was less use of general anesthesia during the pandemic time. CONCLUSION There was no difference in 30-d mortality rate between hip fracture patients treated during the pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. However, the mortality risk was higher in COVID-19 positive patients compared to COVID-19 negative patients. There was no difference in time to surgery, complications and hospitalization time between these two time periods.

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