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Thirteen weeks of supplementation of vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement attenuates chronic low-grade inflammation in sarcopenic older adults: the PROVIDE study

  • Liberman, Keliane1
  • Njemini, Rose1
  • Luiking, Yvette2
  • Forti, Louis N.1
  • Verlaan, Sjors3
  • Bauer, Jürgen M.4
  • Memelink, Robert1, 5
  • Brandt, Kirsten6
  • Donini, Lorenzo M.7
  • Maggio, Marcello8
  • Mets, Tony1
  • Wijers, Sander L. J.2
  • Sieber, Cornel9
  • Cederholm, Tommy10
  • Bautmans, Ivan1
  • 1 Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Frailty in Ageing Research Group (FRIA), Laarbeeklaan 103, Brussels, 1090, Belgium , Brussels (Belgium)
  • 2 Nutricia Advanced Medical Nutrition, Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands , Utrecht (Netherlands)
  • 3 VU University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands , Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • 4 Heidelberg University, Center of Geriatric Medicine, Heidelberg, Germany , Heidelberg (Germany)
  • 5 Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Sports and Nutrition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands , Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • 6 Newcastle University, Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK , Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)
  • 7 “Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Endocrinology and Human Nutrition, Rome, Italy , Rome (Italy)
  • 8 University of Parma, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Section of Geriatrics, Parma, Italy , Parma (Italy)
  • 9 Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany , Erlangen (Germany)
  • 10 Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Public Health and Caring Nutrition Sciences/Clinical and Metabolism, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Uppsala, Sweden , Uppsala (Sweden)
Published Article
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Publication Date
May 02, 2019
DOI: 10.1007/s40520-019-01208-4
Springer Nature


BackgroundA chronic low-grade inflammatory profile (CLIP) is associated with sarcopenia in older adults. Protein and Vitamin (Vit)D have immune-modulatory potential, but evidence for effects of nutritional supplementation on CLIP is limited.AimTo investigate whether 13 weeks of nutritional supplementation of VitD and leucine-enriched whey protein affected CLIP in subjects enrolled in the PROVIDE-study, as a secondary analysis.MethodsSarcopenic adults (low skeletal muscle mass) aged ≥ 65 years with mobility limitations (Short Physical Performance Battery 4–9) and a body mass index of 20–30 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to two daily servings of active (n = 137, including 20 g of whey protein, 3 g of leucine and 800 IU VitD) or isocaloric control product (n = 151) for a double-blind period of 13 weeks. At baseline and after 13 weeks, circulating interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA), soluble tumor-necrosis-factor receptor (sTNFR)1, IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, pre-albumin and 25-hydroxyvitamin(OH)D were measured. Data-analysis included repeated measures analysis of covariance (corrected for dietary VitD intake) and linear regression.ResultsIL-6 and IL-1Ra serum levels showed overall increases after 13 weeks (p = 0.006 and p < 0.001, respectively). For IL-6 a significant time × treatment interaction (p = 0.046) was observed, with no significant change over time in the active group (p = 0.155) compared to control (significant increase p = 0.012). IL-8 showed an overall significant decrease (p = 0.03). The change in pre-albumin was a significant predictor for changes in IL-6 after 13 weeks.ConclusionsWe conclude that 13 weeks of nutritional supplementation with VitD and leucine-enriched whey protein may attenuate the progression of CLIP in older sarcopenic persons with mobility limitations.

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