The aim of this study was the comparison of liquid-based cytology (ThinPrep, TS) to conventional smears (CS) in the investigation of subfertile men with testicular fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Between January and December 2004, testicular FNA biopsies were performed in 30 subfertile men. Both TS and CS were diagnosed according to Meng classification. Features specifically recorded in each smear included sample adequacy, tissue cells preservation, contamination with red blood cells, quality of smear background, ease of cell recognition, and the cytological diagnosis. There was agreement in the cytological diagnosis between TS and CS (P = 0.88) and sample adequacy (P = 0.73). TS was superior to CS regarding cell preservation, presence of red blood cells or tissue artifacts, quality of the smear background, and cell recognition (P < 0.0001). In testicular FNA cytology, TS appear to be superior to CS in respect to cell preservation, absence of red blood cells, background quality, and cell recognition. These advantages, however, are not translated in improved cytological diagnosis.