This study was designed to identify and measure changes in thermoregulatory responses, both behavioral and physiological, that may occur when squirrel monkeys are exposed to 2450-MHz continuous wave microwaves 40 hr/week for 15 weeks. Power densities of 1 or 5 mW/cm2 (specific absorption rate = 0.16 W/kg per mW/cm2) were presented at controlled environmental temperatures of 25, 30, or 35 degrees C. Standardized tests, conducted periodically, before, during, and after treatment, assessed changes in thermoregulatory responses. Dependent variables that were measured included body mass, certain blood properties, metabolic heat production, sweating, skin temperatures, deep body temperature, and behavioral responses by which the monkeys selected a preferred environmental temperature. Results showed no reliable alteration of metabolic rate, internal body temperature, blood indices, or thermoregulatory behavior by microwave exposure, although the ambient temperature prevailing during chronic exposure could exert an effect. An increase in sweating rate occurred in the 35 degrees C environment, but sweating was not reliably enhanced by microwave exposure. Skin temperature, reflecting vasomotor state, was reliably influenced by both ambient temperature and microwaves. The most robust consequence of microwave exposure was a reduction in body mass, which appeared to be a function of microwave power density.