Nine species of thermophilic fungi were obtained from retailed packets of imported and locally manufactured brands of cigarettes and from cured tobacco leaves. They include known human pathogens such as Thermoascus aurantiacus Miehe sensu Apinis, Mucor pursillus Lindt and Mucor miehei Cooney and Emerson. Chaetomium thermophile La Touche, Humicola insolens Cooney and Emerson, Thermoascus crustaeus (Apinis and Chesters) Stolk and Mucor miehei have not been previously reported on tobacco products. Fewer species were obtained from foreign cigarettes than from locally manufactured brands. A mean moisture content of 19% was recorded for imported cigarettes and 37% for Nigerian brands. The potential health hazards posed to man by the unrestricted use of tobacco products are discussed.