Thermography is the measurement of self-emanating infrared radiation revealing temperature variations at the body surface. The two commonly employed methods demonstrating such changes are telethermographic infrared detector/imagers and heat-sensitive cholesterolic liquid crystal systems. Both methods sense body temperature and demonstrate areas of differing heat emission by producing brightly colored patterns. Each color represents a specific temperature level. Interpretation of color patterns in dermatomes or other anatomic distributions are proposed as an aid in diagnosing and evaluating a vast array of diseases. Information obtained from the literature, responses to a Federal Register notice of this assessment, PHS agencies and medical specialty groups failed to support claims of efficacy of thermography as a useful diagnostic modality for non-breast indications. Rather, it suggested that thermography lacks sensitivity, specificity, or predictive value. Unassailable data are lacking to indicate that thermography provides a useful guide to monitor the effect of treatment of any disease entity. The evidence suggests that thermography may only confirm the presence of a temperature difference, that other procedures are needed to reach a specific diagnosis, and that thermography may add little to what physicians already know based on history, physical examination, and other studies.