Baking soda and vinegar have been used as home remedies for generations and today we are only a mouse-click away from claims that baking soda, lemon juice, and apple cider vinegar are miracles cures for everything from cancer to COVID-19. Despite these specious claims, the therapeutic value of controlling acid-base balance is indisputable and is the basis of Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for constipation, epilepsy, metabolic acidosis, and peptic ulcers. In this narrative review, we present evidence in support of the current and potential therapeutic value of countering local and systemic acid-base imbalances, several of which do in fact involve the administration of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). Furthermore, we discuss the side effects of pharmaceuticals on acid-base balance as well as the influence of acid-base status on the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. Our review considers all major organ systems as well as information relevant to several clinical specialties such as anesthesiology, infectious disease, oncology, dentistry, and surgery.