We evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a model of Alzheimer's disease using serial [18F]Florbetaben positron emission tomography. 3xTg Alzheimer's disease mice were treated with intravenously injected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and animals without stem cell therapy were used as controls. Serial [18F]Florbetaben positron emission tomography was performed after therapy. The standardized uptake value ratio was measured as the cortex standardized uptake value divided by the cerebellum standardized uptake value. Memory function and histological changes were observed using the Barnes maze test and β-amyloid-reactive cells. Standardized uptake value ratio decreased significantly from day 14 after stem cell administration in the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-treated group (n = 28). In contrast, there was no change in the ratio in control mice (n = 25) at any time point. In addition, mice that received bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy also exhibited significantly better memory function and less β-amyloid-immunopositive plaques compared to controls. The therapeutic effect of intravenously injected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease was confirmed by β-amyloid positron emission tomography imaging, memory functional studies and histopathological evaluation.