Therapeutic angiogenesis may be a realistic approach in treating ischemic heart disease. VEGF is a major angiogenic factor involved in physiological as well as pathological angiogenesis. The ability of VEGF to promote angiogenesis in animal and clinical studies has been studied extensively. However, it is becoming clear that VEGF alone may not be sufficient to effectively complete the angiogenesis process. The use of more than one growth factor may be more pertinent in creating a sustainable angiogenic effect with clinically significant outcome. The challenge is to find complementary partners in angiogenesis to better affect the outcome of the process. To this end, we have been studying the effects of other angiogenic factors such as angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) in a chronic ischemic porcine model. Single intramyocardial introduction of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of Ang-1 into the left ventricle free wall has been found to enhance angiogenesis by augmenting the formation of new capillaries that manifested in improved total blood flow in the myocardium. A combined therapeutic angiogenesis study involving VEGF and Ang-1 is currently underway. Due to their unique complementary properties, it is expected that the combination will not merely enhance angiogenesis but will also lead to healthy and mature vascular network in the ischemic myocardium.