Music and surgery have a long and shared history, and the existence of musician-surgeons has been well documented. Best known for his 2 gastric reconstruction operations, Theodor Billroth was also a skilled musician and made valuable contributions to the field of music theory and composition. While he was a prolific composer during his lifetime, most of his works have unfortunately been lost. His 1 surviving composition Todessehnsucht offers insight into his composition process and serves as a testament to the amalgamation of his personal life, his career as a surgeon, and his lifelong love of music. This article seeks to analyze Billroth's only musical composition from a historical, musical, and sociopolitical perspective and to illustrate the close interplay between science and art in one of the most quintessential musician-surgeons in history.