Thelazia callipaeda was first described at the beginning of the 20th century in Asia, but this eyeworm is now frequently reported in Europe in the 21st century. To date, thelaziosis has been described in the following European countries (in order of appearance): Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Greece, Bulgaria, Hungary, Slovakia, the United Kingdom, Turkey and Austria. The infected vertebrate host species include domestic carnivores (dogs and cats), wild carnivores (red foxes, wolves, beech martens, wildcats and golden jackals), lagomorphs (brown hares and wild European rabbits) and humans. In Europe, 11 cases of human thelaziosis have been reported, the majority of which are autochthonous. However, some of them have been imported, a fact which highlights the importance of surveillance policies to restrict cross-border spread of the parasite. The objectives of this article are to review key aspects of the epidemiology of T. callipaeda, summarise animal and human cases in Europe and emphasise the importance of education and awareness among veterinarians, physicians (particularly ophthalmologists) and animal, in order to owners to tackle this zoonosis. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.