We analyzed the effects of mating system and recombination rate on single nucleotide polymorphisms using 14 single-copy nuclear loci from single populations of five species of wild tomatoes (Solanum section Lycopersicon). The taxa investigated comprise two self-compatible (SC) and three self-incompatible (SI) species. The observed reduction in nucleotide diversity in the SC populations compared to the SI populations is much stronger than expected under the neutral effects of the mating system on effective population size. Importantly, outgroup sequences available for 11 of the 14 loci yield strong positive correlations between silent nucleotide diversity and silent divergence, indicative of marked among-locus differences in mutation rates and/or selective constraints. Furthermore, using a physical estimate of local recombination rates, we find that silent nucleotide diversity (but not divergence) is positively correlated with recombination rate in two of the SI species. However, this correlation is not nearly as strong as in other well-characterized species (in particular, Drosophila). We propose that nucleotide diversity in Lycopersicon is dominated mainly by differences in neutral mutation rates and/or selective constraints among loci, demographic processes (such as population subdivision), and background selection. In addition, we hypothesize that the soil seed bank plays an important role in the maintenance of the large genetic diversity in the SI species (in particular L. peruvianum).