It has been suggested that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor for vaccinia virus. Other reports, although not specifically addressing this question, did not support such a role for the EGFR. We addressed this issue by using wild-type virus and a virus growth factor deletion mutant, as well as sets of cells that do not express EGFR or have been transfected with the human gene for EGFR. The expression of virus growth factor by vaccinia virus or of EGFR by the target cells influenced neither virus adsorption to cells nor penetration. These results indicate that the EGFR is not a receptor for vaccinia virus.