The effect of lipid peroxidation on the Ca2+-accumulating and Ca2+-retaining abilities of the microsomal fraction from chicken breast muscle was investigated. At 25 degrees C, enzymic lipid peroxidation did not seriously affect either of these abilities unless ascorbic acid was present, when both were diminished. At 37 degrees C, Ca2+-concentrating ability was decreased further by the effects of heat damage to the membrane. Membrane lipid peroxidation did not affect microsomal adenosine triphosphatase activity unless the microsomal fraction was subsequently washed with albumin. This effect of albumin is possibly due to removal of lipid-breakdown products. Addition of soya-bean phospholipids to the peroxidized vesicles washed with albumin restored adenosine triphosphatase activity, demonstrating a non-specific phospholipid requirement.