1. Limited proteolytic digestion of rat liver microsomes (microsomal fractions) with trypsin (5 micrograms/ml), proteinase K (1.0 microgram/ml) and Pronase (20 micrograms/ml final concns.) resulted in abolition of GTP-dependent vesicle fusion. 2. Vesicle fusion could be partially restored to microsomes which had undergone limited tryptic digestion, by the addition of untreated microsomal vesicles. 3. GTP-dependent Ca2+ efflux from rat liver microsomes was also observed to be inhibited by limited proteolysis with trypsin and proteinase K. 4. Limited proteolysis of rat liver microsomes had no effect on subsequent GTP-dependent phosphorylation of polypeptides of Mr 17,000 and 38,000, and thus it is unlikely that the phosphorylation of these proteins is involved in GTP-dependent Ca2+ efflux and GTP-dependent vesicle fusion. 5. GTP binding by Gn proteins [proteins which bind GTP after transfer to nitrocellulose, as defined by Bhullar & Haslam (1986) Biochem. J. 245, 617-620] was inhibited by pre-treatment of microsomes with trypsin, proteinase K and Pronase at concentrations similar to those which abolished GTP-dependent Ca2+ efflux and vesicle fusion. 6. We suggest that one or more of the Gn proteins may be involved in the molecular mechanisms of GTP-dependent vesicle fusion and Ca2+ efflux in rat liver microsomes and that limited proteolytic digestion may be a useful tool in further investigation of these processes.