Four DNA polymerases from the marine diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis, polymerases A, B, C and D, were further differentiated by their subcellular localization, presence of deoxyribonuclease activity, apparent heterogeneity and molecular weights. Polymerases A, B and D occur in significant amounts in the soluble fraction, suggesting that they were originally localized in the nuclei, whereas polymerase C predominates in the chloroplasts. A mitochondrial DNA polymerase was also isolated and characterized by ion-exchange chromatography. Polymerase D has an associated nuclease activity which prefers denatured DNA and Mg2+, and has a pH optimum higher than that for polymerase activity. Co-elution from a DEAE-Sephadex column and co-sedimentation in glycerol density gradients of deoxyribonuclease and polymerase D activity suggest a molecular association. Polymerases A, B and C are devoid of nuclease activity. Glycerol-gradient-sedimentation analysis showed that all DNA polymerase fractions are heterogeneous at low ionic strengths, with the appearance of a single homogeneous activity of 0.5M-KCl. Estimated molecular weights of 100000, 82000 and 120000 for polymerases A, B and C respectively were obtained from sedimentation analysis and gel filtration. Polymerase D was estimated to have a molecular weight of about 100000 as determined by sedimentation analysis alone.