A 64-year-old Japanese man suffering from IgD lambda myeloma and renal failure requiring chronic hemodialysis was treated with thalidomide. Serum IgD concentration was 4,050 mg/dl and myeloma cells constituted 95.6% of nucleated cells in bone marrow at the start of treatment. These parameters improved markedly to 1,590 mg/dl and 22.0%, respectively, in the 4 months immediately prior to his death due to pneumonia. Thalidomide caused peripheral neuropathy and constipation at a dose of 100 mg daily in the first week of treatment, but adverse effects resolved upon dose reduction. Thalidomide represents a valid therapeutic option for some myeloma patients receiving hemodialysis.