To collect data on sexual and fertility issues in adult male patients with history of anorectal malformations (ARM). Thirty adult males born with ARM, cared for at the Pediatric Surgery of Treviso and Padua Hospitals, were enrolled and interviewed about sexual habits and relationships. Testicular ultrasound, evaluation of male sex hormones and semen analysis were performed to assess testicular function and compare data with 15 fertile controls. Presence of erectile dysfunction was evaluated with IIEF-5 questionnaire. Cryptorchidism and recurrent orchiepididymitis were reported in 33% and 40% of patients, respectively. Average testicular volume resulted significantly lower than fertile controls (11.1 vs 14.3 mL, p = 0.002) and 53.5% presented testicular hypotrophy (<10 mL). Erectile dysfunction was reported by a single patient and ejaculatory anomalies by 46.5%. Thirteen patients were azoospermic/cryptozoospermic; 6 of them presented a reduced peripheral sensitivity to androgens (ASI > 139). Coital debut resulted delayed at 18 years old (vs 15 years in the control group). Overall 63.5% reported their condition did not affect their sexual sphere. Evaluation of testicular function is recommended in ARM patients to detect and treat possible infertility disorders, to recognize the clinical conditions which could affect the spermatogenesis since childhood, and to guarantee psychological support. Prognosis study. Level III (case-control study). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.