Population quality is an undeniable fact. It means people's scientific and cultural literacy, their ability to work, and their physical health condition. Population quality is influenced by sociological and physiological factors. Population quality improves as society and production power improve. Industrialization and rapid development in science and technology in western countries required workers with higher levels of education and physical concentration. In order to change the poor economic situation and achieve the "Four Modernizations" in China, a great number of people possessing knowledge of modern science and technology to manage modern production is needed. Agricultural and meat production need to be improved, thereby improving the people's physical health condition. The importance of population quantity control must be realized. In order to lower the population growth rate we can increase the economic development and improve people's educational level and physical health. To improve population quality we should continue nationwide family planning programs, change our educational structure (increase vocational training and utilize the electronic media and correspondence courses), improve the physical health of children and youth, expand our social welfare system, and emphasize research on genetics and eugenics.