Microgrids are essential elements of the energy transition because they allow optimal use of renewable energy sources (photovoltaic panels, wind turbines) and storage devices (batteries, supercapacitors) by connecting them to consumption poles (e.g., buildings, charging stations of electric vehicles). Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are the main electrical storage devices usually used by microgrids for energy and power transient management. In the present paper, microgrid simulations have been performed. Electrothermal and aging models of storage components are presented. Strategies and scenarios for the batteries are presented either based on the state of charge limitation or hybrid association with supercapacitors. The contribution of this study is to provide a management strategy which considers the aging of storage systems in the real-time management of the microgrid in order to extend their life, while minimizing installation costs. The first approach for a techno-economic study provided in that study enables us to improve the strategies by optimizing the use of the battery. The results obtained in this paper demonstrate the key role of the techno-economic approach and knowledge of the aging processes of storage devices in improving the energy management and global feedback costs of microgrids. The simulation results show that battery life can be improved by 2.2 years. The improvement in battery life leads to a reduction in the total cost of the installation by reducing the cost of the batteries.