The successful development of literacy skills is of great importance to the knowledge development of students in all school subjects. It is vital to identify students who risk literacy difficulties early in order to be able to offer the right support. Early initiatives can have a big impact on studentsʼ continued development. The aim of this research is to study how teachers teaching in the early school years describe their work identifying and supporting students who risk developing literacy difficulties. To broaden this aim the following questions have been used: How do teachers work with literacy instruction? How do teachers identify students who risk developing literacy difficulties? What types of support do teachers perceive as being important for the advancement of studentsʼ literacy development? What support does the teacher use in their work in order to identify and support students who risk developing literacy difficulties? This research is a qualitative study which uses partially-structured interviews with teachers in the early school years. The theoretical starting point for this research is the sociocultural perspective. The following expressions have been used as analytical tools: the proximal zone of development and scaffolding. The result shows that teachers use both synthetic and analytical methods in the teaching of literacy in the early school years. In order to identify studentsʼ literacy capacities teachers use tests and development schedules. To be able to support students who risk developing literacy difficulties teachers adapt their teaching methods and use various teaching aids to support the students. As support to the students there also special pedagogical initiatives made by a special education teacher. The teachers describe their colleagues, special education teachers, the student health team and specialized training as their support in working to identify difficulties and support students.