MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNA molecules approximately 19 to 25 nucleotides in length that downregulate the expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level by binding to the 3′-untranslated region (3’-UTR). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) generates at least 44 miRNAs, but the functions of most of these miRNAs have not yet been identified. Previously, we reported BRUCE as a target of miR-BART15-3p, a miRNA produced by EBV, but our data suggested that there might be other apoptosis-associated target genes of miR-BART15-3p. Thus, in this study, we searched for new target genes of miR-BART15-3p using in silico analyses. We found a possible seed match site in the 3′-UTR of Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1). The luciferase activity of a reporter vector including the 3′-UTR of TAX1BP1 was decreased by miR-BART15-3p. MiR-BART15-3p downregulated the expression of TAX1BP1 mRNA and protein in AGS cells, while an inhibitor against miR-BART15-3p upregulated the expression of TAX1BP1 mRNA and protein in AGS-EBV cells. Mir-BART15-3p modulated NF-κB activity in gastric cancer cell lines. Moreover, miR-BART15-3p strongly promoted chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Our results suggest that miR-BART15-3p targets the anti-apoptotic TAX1BP1 gene in cancer cells, causing increased apoptosis and chemosensitivity to 5-FU.