Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is an active process characterized by osteoblastic differentiation of the aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). Taurine is a free β-amino acid and plays important physiological roles including protective effect of cardiovascular events. To evaluate the possible role of taurine in AVC, we isolated human AVICs from patients with type A dissection without leaflet disease. We demonstrated that the cultured AVICs express SM α-actin, vimentin and taurine transporter (TAUT), but not CD31, SM-myosin or desmin. We also established the osteoblastic differentiation model of the AVICs induced by pro-calcific medium (PCM) containing β-glycerophosphate disodium, dexamethasone and ascorbic acid in vitro. The results showed that taurine attenuated the PCM-induced osteoblastic differentiation of AVICs by decreasing the alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity/expression and the expression of the core binding factor α1 (Cbfα1) in a dose-dependent manner (reaching the maximum protective effect at 10 mM), and taurine (10 mM) inhibited the mineralization level of AVICs in the form of calcium content significantly. Furthermore, taurine activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway via TAUT, and the inhibitor of ERK (PD98059) abolished the effect of taurine on both ALP activity/expression and Cbfα1 expression. These results suggested that taurine could inhibit osteoblastic differentiation of AVIC via the ERK pathway.