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Taurine chloramine inhibits NO and TNF-α production in zymosan plus interferon-γ activated RAW 264.7 cells.

  • Kim, Bo Sook
  • Cho, In Soo
  • Park, Seung Yong
  • Schuller-Levis, Georgia
  • Levis, William
  • Park, Eunkyue
Published Article
Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2011
PMID: 21637907


Taurine is present abundantly in various tissues, especially in leukocytes embattled to foreign invaders such as microorganisms or oxidants. Taurine-chloramine (Tau-Cl) is produced from taurine at the site of inflammation via the myeloperoxidase-halide pathway in leukocytes induced by oxidants and/or infectious materials. Previously, our data demonstrated that Tau-Cl inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and TNF-α secretion induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) ligand or lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a TLR-2 ligand plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in peritoneal macrophages or RAW 264.7 cells. Zymosan, a β-glucan of yeast cell wall, is a ligand for TLR-2 and dectin-1 and stimulates macrophages to produce proinflammatory mediators such as NO and TNF-α. Based on our previous data, we examined the effect of zymosan and IFN-γ induced production of NO and TNF-α in the absence or presence of Tau-Cl or taurine using RAW 264.7 cells. Production of NO and secretion of TNF-α is increased when zymosan is combined with IFN-γ. Tau-Cl inhibited production of NO and secretion of TNF-α in zymosan plus IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner (99% vs. 48% using 0.8mM Tau-Cl). Taurine was without effect. Nitric oxide synthase protein (iNOS), induced by zymosan plus IFN-γ, was inhibited by Tau-Cl (0.8mM) as measured using western blot analysis. NOS mRNA was inhibited by Tau-Cl at four, eight and 16 hours post activation, but not at 24 hours. TNF-α mRNA was inhibited at four hours and eight hours, but not at 16 and 24 hours. These data suggest that expression of both iNOS and TNF-α mRNAs are inhibited by treatment with Tau-Cl within four and eight hours, but not at later time points. Transient suppression of activation of RAW 264.7 cells induced by zymosan may play a critical physiological role for taurine in protecting against tissue injury from initial overt inflammation. This study indicates that tropical treatment of taurine may ameliorate inflammatory dermatoses caused by an environmental yeast or abnormal immune function.

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