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Targeting temporal parietal junction for assessing and treating disembodiment phenomena: a systematic review of TMS effect on depersonalization and derealization disorders (DPD) and body illusions

Authors
  • Orrù, Graziella
  • Bertelloni, Davide
  • Cesari, Valentina
  • Conversano, Ciro
  • Gemignani, Angelo
Type
Published Article
Journal
AIMS Neuroscience
Publisher
AIMS Press
Publication Date
Jan 12, 2021
Volume
8
Issue
2
Pages
181–194
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3934/Neuroscience.2021009
PMID: 33709023
PMCID: PMC7940112
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Unknown

Abstract

The temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) is a key structure for the embodiment, term referred to as the sense of being localized within one's physical body and is a fundamental aspect of the self. On the contrary, the sense of disembodiment, an alteration of one's sense of self or the sense of being localized out of one's physical body, is a prominent feature in specific dissociative disorders, namely depersonalization/derealization disorders (DPD). The aims of the study were to provide: 1) a qualitative synthesis of the effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), taking into account its use for therapeutic and experimental purposes; 2) a better understanding on whether the use of TMS could support the treatment of DPD and other clinical conditions in which depersonalization and derealization are displayed. To identify suitable publications, an online search of the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of science and Scopus databases was performed using relevant search terms. In addition, an in-depth search was performed by screening review articles and the references section of each included articles. Our search yielded a total of 108 records through multiple databases searching and one additional record was identified through other sources. After duplicates removal, title and abstract reading, we retained 16 records for the assessment of eligibility. According to our inclusion criteria, we retained 8 studies. The selected studies showed that TMS targeting the TPJ is a promising technique for treating disembodiment phenomena DPD and for inducing reversible disembodiment states in healthy subjects. These data represent the first step towards a greater understanding of possible treatments to be used in disembodiment disorders. The use of TMS over the TPJ appears to be promising for treating disembodiment phenomena.

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