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Targeting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Vulnerabilities for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma.

Authors
  • Anreddy, Nagaraju1
  • Hazlehurst, Lori A1
  • 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Publisher
Wiley (John Wiley & Sons)
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2017
Volume
118
Issue
1
Pages
15–25
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25617
PMID: 27261328
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant plasma cell disorder, clinically characterized by osteolytic lesions, immunodeficiency, and renal disease. Over the past decade, MM therapy is significantly improved by the introduction of novel therapeutics such as immunomodulatory agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide), proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib), monoclonal antibodies (daratumumab and elotuzumab), histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (Panobinostat). The clinical success of these agents has clearly identified vulnerabilities intrinsic to the MM cell, as well as targets that emanate from the tumor microenvironment. Despite these significant improvements, MM remains incurable due to the development of drug resistance. This perspective will discuss more recent strategies which take advantage of multiple targets within the proteome recycling pathway, chromatin remodeling, and disruption of nuclear export. In addition, we will review the development of strategies designed to block opportunistic survival signaling that occurs between the MM cell and the tumor microenvironment including strategies for inhibiting myeloma-induced immune suppression. It has become clear that MM tumors continue to evolve on therapy leading to drug resistance. It will be important to understand the emerging drug resistant mechanisms and additional vulnerabilities that occur due to the development of clinical resistance. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 15-25, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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