The targeting of specific tissue is a major challenge for the effective use of therapeutics and agents mediating this targeting are strongly demanded. We report here on an in vivo selection technology that enables the de novo identification of pegylated DNA aptamers pursuing tissue sites harbouring a hormone refractory prostate tumour. To this end, two libraries, one of which bearing an 11 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification, were used in an orthotopic xenograft prostate tumour mouse model for the selection process. Next-generation sequencing revealed an in vivo enriched pegylated but not a naïve DNA aptamer recognising prostate cancer tissue implanted either subcutaneous or orthotopically in mice. This aptamer represents a valuable and cost-effective tool for the development of targeted therapies for prostate cancer. The described selection strategy and its analysis is not limited to prostate cancer but will be adaptable to various tissues, tumours, and metastases. This opens the path towards DNA aptamers being experimentally and clinically engaged as molecules for developing targeted therapy strategies.