Melanoma is one of the few tumors that have increased in incidence over the last few decades. Strategies devoted solely to protecting against ultraviolet radiation have, at best, had a modest impact on the development of melanoma. Chemoprevention is an under-explored approach that could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality from this deadly cancer. However, the scientific and logistical challenges of performing clinical studies in chemoprevention require innovative approaches to prove the effectiveness of putative preventive agents. There are several pharmacological and nutriceutical agents that are mechanistically linked to events in melanoma carcinogenesis that are candidates for advanced human studies. We will review the data for several promising agents, including statins, curcumin, resveratrol, silymarin and green tea, and discuss some importance issues and concepts that should be considered in any melanoma chemoprevention strategy.