Subtle clotting that occurs on the luminal surface of atherosclerotic plaques presents a novel target for nanoparticle-based diagnostics and therapeutics. We have developed modular multifunctional micelles that contain a targeting element, a fluorophore, and, when desired, a drug component in the same particle. Targeting atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-null mice fed a high-fat diet was accomplished with the pentapeptide cysteine-arginine-glutamic acid-lysine-alanine, which binds to clotted plasma proteins. The fluorescent micelles bind to the entire surface of the plaque, and notably, concentrate at the shoulders of the plaque, a location that is prone to rupture. We also show that the targeted micelles deliver an increased concentration of the anticoagulant drug hirulog to the plaque compared with untargeted micelles.